•  (0)80-28486700
English German Hindi Kannada

Faecal Sludge Management[FSM]

Faecal sludge management (FSM) is a management system to safely collect, transport and treat faecal sludge from pit latrines, septic tanks or other onsite sanitation facilities.


CDD Society’s Experiences


Why FSM?

Most cities and rural areas will not have underground sewers and treatment plants By 2021, 69% of India’s toilets will have septic tanks or pits ( on-site storage of faecal matter ) This faecal sludge will continue to be collected by “honeysucker” trucks and dumped unsafely in water bodies, open land and fields.

What is FSM?

FSM is a set of solutions that address the lack of training, regulation, and awareness of treatment options. A properly designed treatment plant safely treats faecal sludge for proper disposal.

How is FSM Implemented?

The municipality, existing desludging service providers and other stake holders are brought together to craft regulations, create sustainable operating models and participate in training, thus enabling the serivce providers to work under a legal frame work. A treatment plant is then implemented as a designated disposal point for the desludging operators where faecal sludge is treated and disposed off safely.

City Wide FSM

Faecal sludge management (FSM) is a management system to safely collect, transport and treat faecal sludge from pit latrines, septic tanks or other onsite sanitation facilities. The most critical part of this value chain is lack of proper disposal facilities for faecal sludge forcing improper disposal into open land and water bodies.

Our first foray into FSM resulted in the implementation of India’s first dedicated faecal sludge treatment plant at a town scale, at Devanahalli (a town of 28,000), near Bangalore. (In just 2 years), This treatment plant has so far prevented about half a million liters of faecal sludge from polluting the environment, and the treated sludge is being distributed to local farmers as an organic soil conditioner. The success of the plant was recognised by The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) and the India Sanitation Coalition (ISC), through their Best Innovation in Sanitation Award for 2017 ( shared with the Orissa-based sanitation nonprofit Svadha).

With over 2,000 visitors, Devanahalli has attracted much attention both nationally and internationally. Moreover, it helped us get selected as Project Management Consultants for end-to-end FSM across 100 non-AMRUT-funded towns in the state of Rajasthan. We are currently working to setup FSTPs in 30 of these towns selected for phase 1 of the project. Besides Rajasthan, work is ongoing in Trichy in Tamil Nadu, and in Angul and Dhenkanal in Orissa. We also set up FSTPs in Leh and Bhutan this year. Like Devanahalli, in all these towns, our work goes beyond setting up FSTPs to providing successful end-to-end FSM solutions.

These efforts are only a start and we hope to scale these up in the coming year. In order to do so, we are also working on establishing a world-class technical team to support our partners, government and other stakeholders to design, build and operate effective sanitation systems.

We believe this will go a long way in addressing the variety of sanitation challenges that India faces and in overcoming the skills shortfall in the sector.

We have made a small beginning but working together with our partners, we believe, we can make a big impact. 



Services provided by CDD Society


Several technologies are applied to treat faecal sludge to reusable end products. We integrate solid waste with end products to create value added products for farming and cooking.


Awareness and behavioural change in all involved stakeholders in the Faecal sludge chain.

Policy / Regulations

Design FSM policy guidelines; develop frameworks and tools to aid decision making for implementation.

Business Models

Promote FSM as lucrative avenues for private sector participation. Further to this, development for improved service delivery in existing systems and incorporating best practices.


Propose structures and functioning of alternative/special cells to promote and spearhead FSM at state levels.